A Novel Cluster-based Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks


Recent development in electronics and wireless communications has enabled the improvement of low-power and lowcost wireless sensors networks. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a combination of autonomous devices transmitting locally gathered information to a so-called sink node by using multihop wireless routing. One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to design energy efficient routing mechanism to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Furthermore, hot spots in a WSNs emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. Cluster based routing algorithms in WSNs have recently gained increased interest, and energy efficiency is of particular interest. A cluster head (CH) represents all nodes in the cluster and collects data values from them. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CH should be rotated among all nodes and the cluster size should be carefully determined at different parts of the WSNs. In this paper, we proposed an cluster based energy efficient routing algorithm (CBER), CBER elects CH based on nodes near to the optimal cluster head distance and residual energy of the nodes. In WSNs energy is mostly consumed for transmission and reception, it is a non linear function of transmission range. In this paper, the optimal cluster head distance which links to optimal energy consumption is derived. In addition, residual energy is considered in the CH election in order to increase the network lifetime. Furthermore, the energy consumption of being a CH is equally spread among the cluster members. Performance results show CBER scheme reduces the end to end energy consumption and prolong the network lifetime of multi hop network compared to the well-known clustering algorithms LEACH and HEED.